Test Your Car Battery

Test Your Car Battery

Does your vehicle power contain enough vitality
to start out your engine unit during winter. The only path to learn if your electric battery is fully incurred or not is to gauge the battery's express of demand with a voltmeter. An analog can be utilized by you or digital voltmeter, but an electronic meter is better to read and can offer you a more exact reading. Here How To Test Your Car Battery

First, make sure the ignition key is OFF, and all the vehicle's lights are OFF.

To check your battery's state of charge, connect the RED or POSITIVE voltmeter test lead to your battery POSITIVE terminal. The positive terminal will be marked with a PLUS symbol (+), and the battery cable that is connected to the positive terminal is often color coded RED.

Connect the BLACK or NEGATIVE voltmeter test lead to your battery NEGATIVE terminal. The negative terminal will be marked with a minus symbol (-), and the battery cable that is connected to the negative terminal is often color coded BLACK.

Note the reading on your voltmeter and refer to the chart below:

Battery Voltage and State of Charge:

12.66v . . . . . . . . . . 100%
12.45v . . . . . . . . . . 75%
12.24v . . . . . . . . . . 50%
12.06v . . . . . . . . . . 25%
11.89v . . . . . . . . . . 0%

?Is Your Battery Low

If your battery voltage is less than 12.45 volts (75 percent charged), it is low and should be recharged. This can be done by connecting a portable battery charger to your battery, or by driving your car for 15 to 20 minutes at 40 mph or faster.

Automotive lead-acid batteries should be maintained at a 75 percent charge level or higher for best performance and life. If the battery is allowed to run down and is not brought back up to 75 percent or higher charge within a few days, the battery may be permanently damaged. Sulfation can prevent the cell plates inside the battery from accepting a full charge. Over time, this will lead to diminished battery performance and life

Why You Need a Good Battery for Reliable Cold Weather Starting

A good battery is essential for reliable starting, especially during cold weather because cold weather increases the cranking load on the battery. Oil gets thicker at low temperatures so it takes more amps to crank a cold engine when you try to start it. At 0 degrees**F**, the number of cranking amps it takes to start a cold engine may increase as much as 2X. At minus 15 degrees below zero F. , it can take 3X or more amps to crank the engine depending on the viscosity of the oil in the crankcase. The thicker the oil, the harder is it to crank the engine.

Warning: Do NOT attempt to recharge your battery if it has run down and the liquid inside is frozen. This may cause the battery to explode! Remove the battery and take it inside so it can thaw before recharging or testing it.

?Is Your Battery Good or Bad

A GOOD battery is one that will accept and hold a charge, and is capable of producing close to its rated amperage output. A BAD battery is one that will NOT accept or hold a charge, or cannot produce adequate cranking amps. A GOOD battery can be recharged and returned to service but a BAD battery needs to be replaced.

Most car batteries only last about 4 to 5 years, so if your battery is 4 or more years older and is not holding a charge (keeps running down), or it does not seem to crank your engine a normal speed, you probably need a new battery.

A low or dead battery does not mean your battery has failed, or that it needs to be replaced. A good battery can run down for any number of reasons: somebody left the lights on, you haven't been driving your vehicle enough to keep the battery fully charged, your vehicle has been sitting for a long period of time without being started, there is a problem with the charging system or alternator, or an electrical problem is draining power from the battery when your car is off.

Battery Testing

The only way to know if your battery is GOOD or BAD is to test it. Many auto parts stores will test your battery for free. If your vehicle is drivable or you can get it going with a jump start, drive to a nearby auto parts store that offers free testing and have them test your battery and charging system. If you can't get your car started, remove the battery and get a friend to give you a ride to the auto parts store so you can have the battery tested. Many repair shops will also test your battery and charging system, but they usually charge a fee for this service 

CAUTION: Conventional wet cell car batteries are filled with a mixture of water and sulfuric acid. Wear gloves and handle the battery with care so no liquid spills on your skin or clothing. Battery acid can cause severe burns. If a spill does occur, wash with plenty of water and neutralize the acid by applying baking soda.

There are essentially two ways to test a battery. The "old fashioned way" is to use a Load Tester. For accurate results with a load tester, the battery must first be recharged before it is tested. The tester applies a calibrated load to the battery (typically half the battery cold cranking amp [CCA] capacity or three times its amp/hour rating). While the load is applied, the tester monitors battery voltage. If the battery voltage drops below 9.6 volts during the test, the battery is BAD and needs to be replaced. If the voltage remains about 9.6 volts, the battery is GOOD and can be returned to service.

electronic battery conductance tester The other (and must faster) method for testing your battery is to use an electronic "conductance" . A conductance tester sends a alternating frequency signal through the battery to determine the condition of the cell plates inside the battery. As a battery ages, its internal conductance declines. Shorts, opens and other cell defects also reduce conductance, so measuring conductance gives an accurate indication of battery condition. The best feature of this type of test is that the battery does NOT have to be recharged prior to testing. Most conductance testers will give an accurate reading even if the battery is almost dead.

Some electronic battery testers can also analyze the battery's CCA capacity, which can be used to estimate the battery's remaining service life. Some testers can also measure the amps drawn by the starter while cranking the engine, and analyze charging system output under load once the engine is running. Some testers even provide a built-in voltmeter for checking connections.

Whether your battery tests GOOD or BAD, make sure the battery is fully recharged before returning it to service. The alternator is designed to maintain a battery charge, not to recharge a dead battery. Overloading the charging system with a dead battery can tax it to the point of where it may damage the alternator.

Replacement Car Batteries

 A replacement battery must have the same post configuration as the original (top post or side post), and fit the battery tray. Your first order of business, therefore, is to figure out the correct "group size" for the vehicle.

Next, you have to figure out how many CCAs the vehicle needs for reliable cold weather starting. The replacement battery should have the same or higher CCA rating as the original battery. Bigger is usually better, but keep in mind that some batteries sacrifice "reserve capacity" to achieve higher CCA numbers.

Another number that is important is the months of prorated warranty coverage provided by the battery manufacturer. As a rule, the higher the warranty months on the battery, the higher the battery CCA rating and the better the battery. So consider upgrading from a basic 36-month replacement battery to a premium 72-month battery.

There are also differences in battery technology and design. Though all automotive batteries today are still based on lead-acid chemistry, redesigned grids, thinner plates and new connectors allow more amps to be packaged into smaller cases. Some new batteries use a "spiral wound" cell configuration instead of flat plates to achieve a higher packaging density, more power output and increased durability.

Some batteries also use a "gel" electrolyte or "recombination" technology that replaces the liquid acid. Some have "absorbent glass mat" (AGM) separators between the plates that hold the acid much like a paper towel soaks up water, making the battery "spill-proof" even if the case is punctured. AGM technology also makes batteries more resistant to vibration damage and helps extend battery service life.

Battery Installation

When installing a new battery, clean the posts and inspect the battery cables. Also, check the negative battery cable ground connection and the integrity of any engine ground straps. Loose or corroded connections can cause starting and charging problems

Cold Cranking Amps (CCA) This is the most common battery capacity rating. The rating is the number of amps the battery can deliver for 30 seconds at 0 degrees F. while maintaining post voltage of 7.2 Volts. For reliable cold weather starting, most vehicles require 400 to 600 cold cranking amps. Larger displacement engines require more cranking amps. Some batteries are rated up to 1000 CCA, but may sacrifice reserve capacity to achieve high short term outputs.

Cranking Amps (CA) This is a less meaningful rating. It is the same as CCA except it is measured at 32 degrees F. A battery's CA rating can be converted to CCA by dividing the number by 1.28 (Example: a CA rating of 500 amps becomes 390 CCA).

Reserve Capacity (RC) Think of this as the battery's staying power. This is the number of minutes the battery will deliver 25 amps and still maintain a post voltage of 10.5 Volts. The higher the reserve capacity rating, the longer the battery will last if the charging system fails.

* Amp Hour Rating (A/H) This rating is not used much any more. It measures low current draw for 20 hours while maintaining a minimum post voltage of 10.5 Volts at 70 degrees F. (Example: a drain of 3 amps for 20 hours = 60 A/H rating).

How to Drive Safely in the Rain

How to Drive Safely in the Rain
Driving in the rain can be a scary thing, and in the night, it is even worse. It is difficult to see out of the window, and the other car's lights seems to make it worse. 

Keep both hands on the steering wheel at all times! Keep all distractions, such as cell phones or even the radio, off and away from you. While focus to your front do Take a Look in Back View Mirror as well Right Hand side & Left Hand side so that you get an 360 degree over view what is happening around any mud slide or falling tree, electric pole, hanging electrical wires , or in coming hazard etc

Turn on your headlights .This will make it easier for you to see what is in front of you; thus, preventing any accidents.

Keep a minimum of a good five car length from the car in front of you. You never know what other drivers are going to do or what could happen to you! If that feels too close or too far a rule of thumb is 1 second of following distance per 10 mph (16 km/h) 

Drive at or below the speed limit to the extent that you are comfortable with, and can see far enough in front of you to appropriately make driving decisions.

Be aware that the maximum speed at which you can drive is DIRECTLY related to your tires. Be sure to know what their condition is in. Radial tires have better traction than the old bias ply polyester tires, but even they lose their ability to grip wet pavement and channel water out as the tread wears out.

Be aware of hydroplaning. This is where your vehicle travels on top of the water and has NO or very little contact with the ground. Your traction is reduced significantly. To safely get out of a hydroplaning situation let off the gas and steer straight or slightly in the direction you must go. Do not make sudden motions and remain calm.

Avoid flooded roads. Never drive through standing or flowing water in a road way unless you have no choice or you are able to follow someone else to judge the depth of the water. Flooding the engine of your car can cause the engine to stall, and deep water can actually float your car and take it off the roadway.

Turn on the defroster if the windshield begins to fog. In hot, muggy weather, air conditioned air (which cannot contain as much moisture) will usually clear the inside of the windshield faster than non air conditioned.

Be aware that brakes can be affected by water. Wet drum type brakes are especially prone to decreased stopping power after driving through deep water.

Watch for splashing from potholes and pools of water that accumulate at clogged storm drain pipes and low areas of the pavement. Highways also develop "ruts" where the heaviest traffic tracks, and you may be able to position your vehicle while remaining in your lane to avoid these.

Use a rain repellent product on side windows and mirrors to clear standing raindrops .

Beware of driving in the rain, especially at night. Motorcycles or even other dark-colored cars can be camouflaged amongst glistening raindrops on side windows and mirrors. It's best to have a light colored car that isn't easily camouflaged in the night.

Shifting a 10-speed transmission: as Easy as a Manual Car

A 10-speed transmission is one of the most common and easiest to shift in tractor trailer trucks. it looks like the manual transmission in a car, the shifting pattern is designed in a standard (H) pattern. The only difference is that in big trucks there is a lower and upper or high range. Driving a semi truck requires the driver to upshift and downshift using a selector. however, is as easy as driving a car or other smaller vehicle with a traditional manual transmission.

# for Upshifting:

- place the shift lever with double clutching, to the next wanted gear position in LO

- Range shift (LO to HI) Range (5th to 6th)…
at last gear position of LO range and for the next upshift, pull up the Range Selector and place the shift lever with double-clutching, to the next wanted gear position. 
because the shift lever is passing through neutral, the transmission is going to shift from LO to HI range automatically.

- place the shift lever in neutral position to allow the range shift to complete,then place the shift lever back into gear.

- Continue upshifting with double clutching, to the next wanted gear position in HI range.

The purpose of the high range gear system is allowing the driver to continue to use the same gear positions again, without having to place the shifter into a pattern that would require the shifter to go into a position that would be hard to reach.

- don't move the range lever with the shift lever in neutral position while the truck is moving.          
- when shifting from 5th gear to 6th gear, splitter up before shifting. 

# for Downshifting:

- place the shift lever, double clutching, to the next wanted gear position in HI range.

- Range shift from (HI to LO) Range (6th to 5th)…
when you are at 6th gear position and ready for downshifting, preselect LO range, push the Range Selector down.

- place the shift lever with double clutching, to the next wanted gear position in LO range. 
because the shift lever is passing through neutral, the transmission is going to shift from HI range to LO range automatically.

- Continue downshifting with double clutching, to the next wanted gear position in LO range.

Downshifting is a little more difficult than upshifting. You perform much the same steps, but before shifting down to the next lower gear position you will need to press the acceleration pedal to raise the rpm.
use hard walls and soft wall to assist in finding gears and shifting easily.
finally, note that the common mistake of students  is shifting from 6th gear to 7th gear instead of 6th to 7th, you have to push the shifter  forward to the neutral to allow the spring to push the shifter to soft wall then shift to 7th gear (as a solution). 

Changing Your Truck's Oil Won't be a Problem any More

Changing oil in your truck saves your time and money, Taking the truck to a maintenance shop takes about full day after making an appointment and driving to the shop. After learning how to do this, you will never take it to a shop again.

Before changing the oil you should run the truck and warm the oil to gather all the dirty particles. also, It will be easier to be drained and Make sure that the parking brake is set.

Get wrench fits your drain plug, an oil filter, an oil filter wrench, a bucket for catching the oil, and the oil. ensure knowing what type of oil your truck requires. If you do not know, you can find this in your truck manual and the oil capacity also, or you can easily ask some one who knows.

- at first, Jack up your truck by floor jack. get the jack between the front tires in the center of the front brace . Making sure that the surface you parked on is stable, so that the jack doesn't move. Jack up your truck to get the front tires off the ground. For being safe, get a jack stand under the brace, inside of the two front tires To ensure that the vehicle will not fall on you while changing the oil in case of failing the jack. Blocking the rear tires will also help eliminate the risk of the jack moving.

- then, Slide under the truck then Locate the oil pan and loosen the bolt at the end of the oil pan. 
Before unscrewing the bolt is completely, get the bucket underneath the drain plug to catch the oil as it drains.

- get the oil Drained from the oil pan, then clean the bolt and screw it back in using your fingers. then you should take the wrench and tighten it one more quarter to half rotation to ensure that the bolt it tightened enough, but don't tight so much, because it will pinch the rubber seal.

- Using the oil filter wrench unscrew the oil filter (at the right of the oil pan). Before screwing out the filter, place the container under the filter again for catching any oil still in the filter

- screw the new filter in place of the old filter which is Disposed of. make sure that you have the correct filter, because size will vary depending on model and type of motor of your truck. Also, make sure that you have removed off the O-ring from old filter of the filter housing for being sure that the new filter gets installed correctly.

- rub fresh oil around the rim of the filter to ensure that there is a good seal when the new filter is screwed in then Hand tighten the filter taking the oil filter wrench and tighten one more quarter turn.

- get the tools gathered and move from under the truck then get the two jack stands removed and low the floor jack.

- Pop the hood of the truck and unscrew the oil cap (located on the left side of the engine). any debris should be removed as it could potentially fall into the oil. Put the recommended amount of oil into your truck. Screw the oil cap back on then close the hood of the truck.

note: Don't use an old oil.

finally, Run your truck about ten minutes, then check the oil level with dipstick. Top off oil if wanted and Do not forget to release the parking brake before driving the truck again.

Vehicle's Oil Level: Successfully Checked

You have to check your Vehicle's oil at least once a month for making sure that there is enough oil and it is not contaminated. the purpose of oil is reducing the friction in the engine and keeping it running smoothly. if the oil is dirty or smells of gasoline when checking, you should change it.

# To find out if your vehicle needs oil you should follow these steps:

- get the dip stick Pulled out then wipe it off on a clean free rag.

- make sure that the engine is cold (has been off about ten minutes) before checking the oil. The location of the oil dipstick depends on your vehicle type and model (you can easily find it).

- Insert the stick again into the pipe.

- turn the dipstick around If it gets stuck on the way in. 
get the dipstick pulled out again and look at the film of oil on the end of the stick.

- Note the height of oil film reaches on the dipstick and the oil condition, and add or change the oil as wanted.

- Look for (a screw off cap) which is located on top of the largest part of your engine. It might be blank or it might be labeled as Oil Cap, or something similar. also, it might indicate which amount of oil you need to be used in your Vehicle. Unscrew the cap and add oil as wanted.

- now,  you can Put the dipstick back into the pipe.  Vehicle's Oil Level: Successfully Checked.

note: Oil turns black quickly, but that doesn’t mean that the quality affected. Rub a little between index finger and thumb, and if there is a dirty smudge, it will need to be changed.

If the oil looks clean but only reaches the Add sign on the dipstick, you just have to add more oil. You can buy oil from the service station or you can find it at supermarkets, auto supply, large drugstores, and stores discount stores.

Truck Blind Spots: Fully Under Control

Whether you are sharing the road with a car, motorcycle, bicycle or other small vehicle, it is important for safety to follow traffic laws, obey the rules of the road, and drive defensively. is there any special rule for sharing the road with a small vehicle? 
- Yes! Here are some advises from professional truck drivers.

# Blind Spots:

- Although most trucks have several rear view mirrors, it is easy for a car, motorcycle or bicycle to be hidden in your truck's blind spot. 
- Do not follow closely behind a car or motorcycle. 
- When driving near a small vehicle, be aware of your blind spots on the right, left, front and behind.

# Rear Blind Spots:
- trucks have deep blind spots behind them. Tailgating greatly increases the chances of a rear collision with a smaller vehicle.

# Unsafe Passing:

- Another blind spot is just in front of your truck. When passing a car, be sure you can see the cab in your rear view mirror before going forward.

# Wide Right Turns:

- Truck drivers need  sometimes to swing wide to the left to make a safe negotiate a right turn. you cannot see cars, motorcycles or bicycles directly behind or beside you. 
- Cutting in between the truck and the curb to the right increases the possibility of a crash.

# Backing Up:

- When your truck is backing up, it sometimes must block the street to maneuver your trailer accurately so Never prepare to back up or is in the process of doing so when car is going to cross behind your truck and remember that most trailers are eight and a half feet wide and can completely hide objects that suddenly come between them and loading areas.

# Passing:

- When passing, you should check to your front and rear, and move into the passing lane only if it is clear.
-  Let the car driver know you are passing by blinking your headlights, especially at night. The driver will make it easier for you by staying to the far side of the lane.
- On a level highway, it takes only three to five seconds longer to let a car to pass your truck. On an upgrade, your truck often loses speed, so it is easier to pass than a car. 
- On a downgrade, your truck's momentum will make it to go faster, so let the car increase its speed. Complete your pass quickly and don't stay beside any other vehicle.
- When your truck passes you, you can help the car driver by keeping to the far side of your lane.
- After passing, you should signal to let car driver know that the truck will be returning to his lane.
- When you meet a car coming from the opposite direction, keep as far as possible to the side to avoid a side crash.

# being Followed:

- In general, trucks take slightly longer than cars to stop because of their size, but at highway speeds and on wet roads, trucks have better stability allowing them to stop more quickly.
- A car following too closely may not be able to stop quickly enough to avoid rear of your truck.
If you were followed, stay out of its "blind spot" to the rear. 
- Avoid being followed too closely and position your truck so the you can see the car in your side mirrors. 
- Then he will have a good view of the road ahead, and you can give him plenty of warning for a stop or a turn and the car will have more time to react and make a safe stop. 

Hill Parking For Automatic Transmission Cars

parking a car on a steep hill, gravity works against you. If proper precautions is not taken , the car could roll downhill, harming  people and properties. basicly, make sure to get the parking gear and turn your the wheels in the proper direction. Turn your wheels toward the curb, for parking downhill, and away from the curb for parking uphill.

@ Parking the car parallel to the curb:
- for parking uphill, make sure a full car's length of space is to left behind your car. this space is needed for backing into the curb.
- for parking on a downhill incline, make sure a full car's length of space is left in front of your car so that the wheels can go forward into its position.

turn your wheels to the side of the road, If the street which you are parking on doesn't have a curb.It does not matter if you are parking on an uphill or downhill incline. the likelihood will increase your car rolls away from the street, If your emergency brake failed.

@ Turning the tires:

- for parking uphill, turn the tires away from the curb.
- for parking downhill, turn them toward the curb. 
- Press on the foot brake then place the car in neutral position, and turn the steering wheel a full turn in the proper direction and make sure to avoid dry steering. 

@ Rolling the car into the curb:

- place the car into neutral gear, keeping your foot on the brake. When you get ready, take off your foot away of the brake. 
- Let the car roll slowly downhill until you feel the front tire is touching the curb then Hit the foot brake to stop the car.
- Make sure that there are not any other car is coming up or down the hill behind you, Check your mirrors and look over your shoulders.

make sure to keep your car's brake maintenance current. check your brakes each time you have your car serviced. A fully applying emergency brake can keep your car from rolling even on the steepest of hills.

finally, Leave the car, Make sure that the car is in park and apply the the emergency brake.